GAV - Common Buses

GAV - BusA Bus is a heavy people moving vehicle which carries more than 9 passengers including the driver. A bus can have a single or a double deck.

General Access Vehicles (GAVs) don't require a permit or notice to access road networks; these vehicles have as-of-right access to the network unless otherwise signposted. For a heavy vehicle to be considered a GAV, they must be within the size and weight range outlined below.

The following buses are GAVs when complying with the GML and general dimensions described below.

 

Bus dimensions

Width All bus types 2.5 metres
Height 3 axle double decker 4.4metre
  All other bus types 4.3 metres
Length 3 Axle Ultra-Low Floor Articulated Bus 18 metres
  All other GA bus types 12.5 metres
Rear Overhang All bus types 3.7 metres or 60% of the wheelbase (whichever is lesser)

 

 

GAV Bus Mass and Dimension

  Description of heavy vehicle Image of heavy vehicle Max Length (metres) Max Regulatory Mass under GML (tonnes)
1 Complying 2 Axle Bus GAV - Bus - Complying 2 axle bus 12.5 16.0
2 Complying 3 axle bus fitted with a rear 6 tyred tandem axle GAV Bus - Complying 3 axle bus fitted with a rear 6 tyred tandem axle 12.5 20.0
3 Complying 3 axle bus fitted with a rear 8 tyred tandem axle GAV Bus - Complying 3 axle bus fitted with a rear 8 tyred tandem axle 12.5 22.5
4 Eligible 2 Axle Bus GAV Bus - Eligible 2 axle bus 12.5 18.0
5 Eligible 3-axle bus fitted with a rear 6 tyred tandem axle GAV Bus - Eligible 3 axle bus fitted with a rear 6 tyred tandem axle 12.5 22.0
6 2 Axle rigid Ultra-Low Floor bus with a single dual tyred rear axle GAV Bus - 3 Axle rigid ultra low floor bus with a single dual tyred rear axle 12.5 16.0
7 3 Axle rigid Ultra-Low Floor bus with a rear 6 tyred tandem axle GAV Bus - 3 Axle rigid ultra low floor bus with a rare 6 tyred tandem axle 12.5 19.0
8 3 Axle rigid Ultra-Low Floor bus with a tandem dual tyred rear axle GAV Bus - 3 Axle rigid ultra-low floor bus with a single dual tyred rear axle 12.5 22.5
9 3 Axle ultra-Low Floor articulated bus fitted with a single dual tyred rear axle 3 Axle ultra-low floor articulated bus fitted with a single dual tyred rear axle 18.0 26.0
10

Twinsteer with non-load sharing suspension

3 Axle double decker bus fitted with a rear single dual tyred axle group

GAV Bus - Twinsteer non-load sharing suspension 12.5 19t
11

Twinsteer with load sharing suspension

3 Axle double decker bus fitted with a rear single dual tyred axle group

GAV Bus - Twinsteer with load sharing suspension 12.5 20.0

 

Note: Combinations operating at Higher Mass Limits (HML) are considered a Restricted Access Vehicle (RAV) and must comply with the relevant state notice or permit conditions.

 

GAV Bus Definitions

Term Definition Source
Articulated bus

A bus with 2 or more rigid sections connected to one another in a way that allows— (a) passenger access between the sections; and (b) rotary movement between the sections.

 

Bus

a heavy motor vehicle built or fitted to carry more than 9 adults (including the driver).

 

Complying bus

a bus with 2 or 3 axles, 1 of

which is a steer axle, that is fitted with an approved air suspension system and meets—

  1. the emergency exit specifications in ADR 44; and
  2. the rollover strength specifications in ADR 59; and
  3. the occupant protection specifications in ADR 68.

 

Controlled access bus

a bus, other than an articulated bus, longer than 12.5m but not more than 14.5m long.

 

eligible 2-axle bus

 

A bus is an eligible 2-axle bus if the bus—

  1. was manufactured before 1 January 2016; and
  2. has 2 axles, 1 of which is a single-drive axle fitted with dual tyres; and
  3. is 1 of the following—
    1. a complying bus;
    2. an ultra-low floor bus;
    3. a bus, other than an ultra-low floor bus, that is authorised to carry standing passengers;
    4. a bus, other than an articulated bus, whose length is more than 12.5m but not more than 14.5m; and
  4. is fitted with—
    1. a complying anti-lock braking system; or
    2. a vehicle stability function that complies with the version of UN ECE Regulation No. 13 that applied to the bus at the bus’s date of manufacture or a later version of UN ECE Regulation No. 13.

 

eligible 3-axle bus

 

A bus is an eligible 3-axle bus if the bus—

  1. was manufactured before 1 January 2015; and
  2. has 3 axles, including a rear tandem axle group fitted with single tyres on 1 axle and dual tyres on the other axle; and
  3. is 1 of the following—
    1. a complying bus;
    2. a bus, other than an articulated bus, whose length is more than 12.5m but not more than 14.5m;
    3. an ultra-low floor bus; (iv) a bus, other than an ultra-low floor bus, that is authorised to carry standing passengers under an Australian road law; and
  4. is fitted with—
    1. a complying anti-lock braking system; or
    2. a vehicle stability function that complies with the version of UN ECE Regulation No. 13 that applied to the bus at the bus’s date of manufacture or a later version of UN ECE Regulation No. 13

 

Rear overhang The rear overhang of a heavy vehicle is the distance measured between the rear overhang line and the rear of a vehicle or load whichever extends further.

 

Rear overhang line

The rear overhang line is the point from which the rear overhang and the wheelbase of a vehicle is measured.

The rear overhang line commonly runs through the centre of the axle group; however, the overhang line can change depending on the number of tyres per axle, whether it is a single axle or it is fitted with a steerable axle within an axle group.

For example, the overhang line:

  • For a vehicle fitted with a rear single axle group, the overhang line is a vertical line running through the centre-line of the axle.
  • For a vehicle fitted with a rear tandem axle group consisting of a single trye axle and dual tyre axle, the rear overhang line is a line running parallel to the axles that is—
    1. closer to the axle carrying the greater number of tyres than it is to the other axle; and
    2. located at one-third of the distance between the two axles
  • For a vehicle fitted with a rear axle group not mentioned above the rear overhang line is a vertical line running through the centre-line of the axle group;
    1. If an axle group include at least one steerable axle, the steerable axle is to be disregarded unless the group comprises of only 1 axle and that axle is a steerable axle or all the axles in the group are steerable axles.

 

Ultra-low floor bus bus with
  1. stairless entry; and
  2. is accessible to wheelchairs; and
  3. is authorised to carry standing passengers

 

Downloadable resources

Bus vehicle chart

Variations of Buses under the Heavy Vehicle National Law and Gazette Notices (PDF)

The first table is a chart of General Access Vehicles